Diabetes mellitus, a condition popularly known as “diabetes”, is a metabolic disease in which a person’s blood sugar level is permanently elevated. Diabetology is the medical-scientific discipline that specialises in the research and treatment of all types of diabetes, including:

  • Diabetes mellitus type 1
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (adult-onset diabetes)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 3 (a rare condition)
  • Gestational diabetes (a condition that is by birth or developed at an early age)
What does a Diabetologist do?

Here at Oceania Hospitals the diabetologist’s tasks include diagnosing and treating all types of diabetes. They also treat diseases that are closely related to diabetes, such as:

  • Disturbances affecting lipid metabolism
  • Severe obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes affecting the head and brain

A diabetologist also carries out preventive examinations with a view to the secondary diseases of diabetes.

Patients with the most common affliction – type 2 diabetes, also referred to as adult-onset diabetes – are usually cared for by their family doctor. Only when insulin therapy becomes necessary or secondary diseases already exist does the diabetologist usually take over responsibility for therapy – in close consultation with the family doctor.

What are the secondary diseases?
  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD):
    A common secondary illness resulting from diabetes is PAD. Due to the presence of deposits, blood flow and oxygen supply to the tissue in the blood vessels supplying the legs are reduced. Symptoms can include cold feet or pain in the legs when walking.
  • Diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP):
    If a person’s blood sugar level remains elevated for years, functional damage to nerves can also occur. Depending on the form of impairment, different types of sensory disturbance develop, as does paralysis (burning sensation in feet).
  • Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS):
    This concerns a serious complication resulting from diabetes. This occurs due to nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy) and circulatory problems occurring in the foot or lower leg. This leads to tissue death and ulcers. Worst-case scenario, the amputation of limbs is necessary however, if proper medical care is provided the amputation of limbs can be salvaged.
Treatment methods deployed by the diabetologist for diabetes

The treatment of diabetes includes the regular monitoring of blood pressure, blood glucose levels and the careful examination of the feet, to be able to make timely and appropriate adjustments to the therapy, for example:

  • Dietary changes and exercise:

Diabetes patients receive medical advice and training on how to optimize their diet, as well as on how to integrate exercise into everyday life.

  • Education on the pathology and possible secondary diseases:

Depending on the type, not only diabetes mellitus but also diseases associated with it are taken into account. Likewise: Secondary diseases such as peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD) or diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP).

  • Oral antidiabetics:

Drug therapy with tablets

  • Insulin therapy:

Administering insulin with pens, syringes or pumps

  • Regular follow up with diabetologist